Pharmacological Targeting of Vacuolar H+-ATPase via Subunit V1G Combats Multidrug-Resistant Cancer
Abstract: Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer remains a major challenge for the success of chemotherapy. Natural products have been a rich source for the discovery of drugs against MDR cancers. Here, we applied high-throughput cytotoxicity screening of an in-house natural product library against MDR SGC7901/VCR cells and identified that the cyclodepsipeptide verucopeptin demonstrated notable antitumor potency. Cytological profiling combined with click chemistry-based proteomics revealed that ATP6V1G directly interacted with verucopeptin. ATP6V1G, a subunit of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (v-ATPase) that has not been previously targeted, was essential for SGC7901/VCR cell growth. Verucopeptin exhibited strong inhibition of both v-ATPase activity and mTORC1 signaling, leading to substantial pharmacological efficacy against SGC7901/VCR cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo. Our results demonstrate that targeting v-ATPase via its V1G subunit constitutes a unique approach for modulating v-ATPase and mTORC1 signaling with great potential for the development of therapeutics against MDR cancers.